TurkStream gas contributes to combating climate change
Research conducted by Sphera indicates that the replacement of other energy sources used in electricity and heat generation with natural gas transported via TurkStreammay reduce greenhouse gas emissions in Turkey by 74.5 million tonnes of CO2 equivalent (eq.) until 2030.
Sphera conducted a Lifecycle Assessment (LCA) that analyses the potential environmental effects of Russian natural gas delivered via the TurkStream pipeline to Turkey and southeast Europe. The report indicates that TurkStreamand the natural gas it delivers make a critical contribution to combating climate change in the region.
A Lifecycle Assessment is the calculation of all the potential environmental impacts of a product, service or process throughout its entire life cycle.
The findings of the report, which was published following the critical review by an independent panel, have been announced at a webinar on Thursday, 8th Of October. At the webinar, Sphera’s Senior Sustainability Consultant Jasmin Hengstler summarised the findings of the report; and review panel member and İstanbul Technical University (İTÜ) Faculty Prof. Dr. Filiz Karaosmanoğlu shared her comments on the process and the outcomes.
The LCA addresses the impact of TurkStream gas on emissions when used for electricity and heat generation in Turkey and southeast Europe (Bulgaria, Greece, Hungaryand Serbia). Furthermore, it compares not only the emissions caused by different energy sources, but also the environmental impacts of TurkStream gas with other pipelines and LNG supply chains.
According to the TurkStream Lifecycle Assessment (LCA):• Transporting natural gas via pipelines causes lower emissions compared to LNG transportation. The greenhouse gas emissions for the supply chains via LNG imports are 61-176% higher compared to TurkStream, depending on the source country, production method and the distance.
• The natural gas supply from Russia via the TurkStreampipeline causes approximately 30% lower emissions compared to the Ukraine corridor (Trans-Balkan Line). TurkStream reduces total emissions in Turkey and southeast Europe by 10 million tonnes of CO2 eq. per year compared to the Trans-Balkan Line.
• By using TurkStream gas in Turkey instead of more pollutant fossil fuels like lignite, hard coal and oil/petroleum products for electricity and heat generation, 13.8% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions is possible by 2030 based on their 2017 level (537.4 million tons of CO2 eq.).
• When TurkStream gas replaces other fuels, the greenhouse emissions in Turkey may be reduced by 74.5 million tons of CO2 eq. in total until 2030. TurkStream gas eliminates 6.5 million tonnes of CO2 eq. of greenhouse gases when used instead of gas from other sources; 64.9 million tonnes of CO2 eq. when used instead of lignite and coal; and 1.3 million tonnes of CO2 eq. when used to replace oil/petroleum products. The use of TurkStream gas mix with hydrogen creates additional greenhouse gas savings of 1.7 million tonnes of CO2 eq.
• If TurkStream gas is used in electricity and heat generation, the greenhouse gas savings in other countries analysed within the scope of the study can go up to 35% until 2030. In this case, Greece and Hungary approach their greenhouse gas emission targets for 2030, whereas Bulgaria and Serbia exceed their respective targets.
GHG emissions [Mt CO2 eq.]
2017 Total national GHG emissions
2030 Total national GHG emissions (target)
2030 Total national GHG emissions (forecast)
TurkStream is the project for a gas pipeline stretching across the Black Sea from Russia to Turkey and Europe, comprising of two parallel lines. Each line has a throughput capacity of 15.75 billion cubic meters of gas per year.
While the first line of Turkstream provides natural gas to the Turkish market, the second line reaches Turkish-Bulgarian border for further transport of gas to Europe.
Commercial gas supply through the gas pipeline started on 1 January 2020. On 8 January, Russian President Vladimir Putin and Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan officially launched TurkStream at an opening ceremony in Istanbul.